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Óptica holográfica para una realidad virtual delgada y ligera

Facebook Reality Labs (FRL) siempre está explorando nuevas arquitecturas ópticas para mejorar el factor de forma, la comodidad y el rendimiento óptico. El otoño pasado, en Oculus Connect 6, el científico jefe de FRL Michael Abrash presentó un nuevo progreso de miniaturización en realidad virtual con Half Dome 2 y 3 , dos prototipos que examinan cómo las pantallas varifocales pueden mejorar la comodidad visual y física. Este año, en la conferencia virtual SIGGRAPH, presentaron otro hito de investigación en este camino: una nueva arquitectura óptica que es significativamente más compacta y ofrece el potencial para un mejor rendimiento visual.

En este trabajo, “Óptica holográfica para realidad virtual delgada y liviana”, los investigadores Andrew Maimone y Junren Wang proponen una nueva clase de pantallas de ojo cercano, que combinan el poder de la óptica holográfica y el plegado óptico basado en polarización, un enfoque que podría ser utilizado para desarrollar futuros equipos de realidad virtual con aspecto de gafas de sol. Estos dos métodos ayudan a mantener la óptica lo más delgada posible mientras hacen el uso más eficiente del espacio. Anticipamos que estos factores de forma livianos y cómodos pueden permitir sesiones extendidas de realidad virtual y nuevos casos de uso, incluida la productividad.

El diseño se demuestra en un dispositivo de investigación de prueba de concepto que usa solo películas delgadas y planas como ópticas para lograr un grosor de pantalla de menos de 9 mm y al mismo tiempo admite un campo de visión comparable a los productos de realidad virtual de consumo actuales. El trabajo también demuestra la promesa de un mejor rendimiento visual: la iluminación láser se utiliza para proporcionar una gama de colores mucho más amplia a las pantallas de realidad virtual, y se avanza hacia una resolución de escala al límite de la visión humana.


Esta imagen muestra los módulos de visualización de este dispositivo de investigación montados en un marco.

Las pantallas VR de hoy tienen tres componentes principales: una fuente de luz (p. Ej., LED), un panel de visualización que ilumina o atenúa la luz para formar una imagen (p. Ej., Un panel LCD) y una óptica de visualización que enfoca la imagen lo suficientemente lejos para que los ojos del espectador puedan verlo (p. ej., una lente de plástico). Como los dos primeros componentes se pueden formar fácilmente en módulos delgados y planos, la mayor parte del peso y el volumen se destinan a la óptica de visualización. Para reducir significativamente el tamaño y el peso general de las pantallas de realidad virtual, combinaron dos técnicas: óptica holográfica y plegado óptico basado en polarización.

La mayoría de las pantallas de realidad virtual comparten una óptica de visualización común: una lente refractiva simple compuesta de una pieza gruesa, curvada, vidrio o plástico. Proponemos reemplazar este elemento voluminoso con óptica holográfica. Es posible que esté familiarizado con las imágenes holográficas que se ven en un museo de ciencias o en su tarjeta de crédito, que parecen ser tridimensionales con una profundidad realista dentro o fuera de la página. Al igual que estas imágenes holográficas, la óptica holográfica desarrollada es una grabación de la interacción de la luz láser con los objetos, pero en este caso el objeto es una lente en lugar de una escena 3D. El resultado es una reducción dramática en grosor y peso: la óptica holográfica dobla la luz como un lente, pero parece una pegatina delgada y transparente.

Sin embargo, incluso si la lente en sí misma se adelgaza, la óptica de visualización en su conjunto puede ser grande: se debe colocar una cantidad considerable de espacio vacío entre el panel de la pantalla y la lente para enfocar correctamente la imagen. Normalmente, la luz del panel de visualización se propaga hacia la lente y luego continúa hacia el ojo. Sin embargo, cuando aplicaron el plegado óptico basado en polarización, la luz se puede controlar para moverse hacia adelante y hacia atrás dentro de la lente, de modo que este espacio vacío se pueda atravesar varias veces, colapsando a una fracción del volumen original.


Este dispositivo de investigación se utilizó para capturar una imagen verde (algunos componentes se montan externamente).

Cuando se aplica la óptica holográfica a una pantalla VR, se deben reevaluar todos los demás componentes ópticos. En particular, la óptica holográfica obliga al uso de fuentes de luz láser, que son más difíciles de integrar, pero proporcionan un conjunto de colores mucho más rico que los LED comunes en casi todos los auriculares, teléfonos, computadoras y televisores de realidad virtual actuales.

Para ilustrar la diferencia, en una muestra de la gama de colores visibles para los humanos. Un conjunto común de colores reproducibles en muchas pantallas hoy en día es el espacio de color sRGB. Tenga en cuenta que solo puede capturar una pequeña fracción de los colores que realmente podemos ver. Por el contrario, el triángulo exterior representa el conjunto de colores mucho más grande que se puede reproducir utilizando los láseres en una de las pantallas prototipo de investigación. Esto permite la reproducción de colores vivos y saturados. Piense en un letrero de neón brillantemente iluminado o en el brillo iridiscente de un ala de mariposa.

Si bien apunta hacia el desarrollo futuro de tecnología AR / VR ligera, cómoda y de alto rendimiento, en la actualidad el trabajo realizado por FRL es puramente de investigación. En un documento técnico, identificaron las limitaciones actuales de la arquitectura de visualización propuesta y discuten futuras áreas de investigación que harán que el enfoque sea más práctico. Hasta donde sabemos, este trabajo muestra la pantalla VR más delgada demostrada hasta la fecha, y eso nos entusiasma para ver lo que depara el futuro.

Más información: Research Facebook Blog

21 thoughts on “Óptica holográfica para una realidad virtual delgada y ligera

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